SUMMARYImpact of the Expansion of Private Brands on Korean Retail and Manufacturing / Jinkook Lee
The private brands (PB) of corporate retailers are booming in Korea. This paper examines the effect of the rise of PB on Korean retail and manufacturing. By utilizing both store-level data and firm-level data, I find that the expansion of PB elevates the profits of corporate retailers but does not significantly affect, and in some cases even reduces, those of subcontracting manufacturers. This occurs not only because sales of national brands (NB) decline due to the launch of similar PBs but also because the imbalance in the bargaining positions of the two parties has caused retail margins to be set high while manufacturers’ operating profits are set low. The paper provides policy recommendations for fair contracts and cooperative development between retail and manufacturing companies.
Applying a New Approach to Estimate the Net Capital Stock of Transport Infrastructure by Region in South Korea / Jongyearn Lee
Given the limited availability of data in South Korea, this study proposes a method by which to estimate regional capital stock by modifying the benchmark year method (BYM) and applies it to estimate regional net capital stock by sector in transport infrastructure. First, it estimates time-varying sectoral depreciation rates using the sectoral net capital stock and the investment amount for each period. Second, it estimates the net capital stock of each period using the net capital stock in the base year and the investment in each period. Third, in order to ensure that the sum of net capital stocks by region is equal to the nationwide estimate, the national estimates are allocated to each region according to the proportion of the values derived from the previous stage. The proposed method can alleviate well-known problems associated with conventional BYMs, specifically the upward bias and arbitrary choice of the depreciation rate.
The Intergenerational Effects of Tax Policy in an Overlapping Generations Model with Housing Assets / Young Wook Lee
Using an overlapping generations model, this paper examines tax policy effects across generations. The model incorporates housing assets separately from capital assets and includes taxes on labor income, capital income, consumption and housing assets. Tax reforms for each tax rate have different effects on tax burdens across generations and the overall efficiency of the economy, leading to different welfare costs for generations. Specifically, raising housing property taxes results in the smallest welfare loss by future generations, as in the model it does not hurt economic efficiency and the tax burden increases mainly for the elderly, who have accumulated housing assets in preparation for retirement.
Does Early Incubating Improve the Performance of Start-ups?: Evidence from TIPS in Korea / Jahyun Koo
Recently, the government has been pursuing various policies to create new industries and jobs through the invigoration of start-ups. For the sustained growth of start-ups, it is necessary to look not only at the supply of risk capital but also at policies for venture capital firms that nurture and foster start-ups. The purpose of this study is to estimate the effects of the nurturing and fostering role of risk capital, such as mentorship on the performance of start-ups, and to do this we analyzed the effects, as a newly introduced form of venture capital, of mentoring by an accelerator and investor ties on the performance outcomes of start-ups. We find that mentoring and investor ties for start-up enterprises positively influence follow-up investment in startups. In addition, this study finds that with a younger CEO of a start-up, it is more likely that the performance of the start-up will improve. Meanwhile, when examining increases in employment as a measure of the business performance of start-ups, mentoring and investor ties are found to have a positive effect on the increase of employment at startups. These results suggest that there is a need to promote policies that strengthen the mentoring role of venture capital in Korea's equity finance policies and in the government's SME support policies.