SUMMARYAutonomy, Incentives, and School Performance: Evidence from the 2009 Autonomous Private High School Policy in Korea / Yoonsoo Park
Improving the quality of school education is one of the key policy concerns in Korea. This paper examines whether providing schools with adequate autonomy and incentives can meet the policy goals by looking at a recent policy reform in Korea. In 2009, the Korean government granted autonomy to certain private high schools on the condition that no financial subsidies would be provided to the schools. Because the autonomous private high schools cannot receive a subsidy, they have a strong incentive to meet parental demands because schools failing to meet these demands will lose students and will have to close. Applying the value-added model to longitudinal data at the student level, I find that students entering these autonomous schools show faster growth in their academic achievement than their peers in traditional non-autonomous schools. These results suggest that providing schools with autonomy and incentives can be a useful policy tool for improving school education.
CEO Compensation and Concurrent Executive Employment of Outside Directors: A Panel Data Analysis of S&P 1500 firms / Young-Chul Kim and Sujin Song
In many advanced countries, most outside directors are executives, active or retired, at other firms; in other words, executives from other companies make executive compensation decisions. This situation may hinder the board of directors (BOD) in their efforts to optimize executive compensation levels objectively. Using a panel data analysis of the S&P 1500 companies, we provide supplemental evidence of whether, and to what extent, the concurrent executive employment of outside directors distorts the executive pay decisions at a given company. An unbiased fixed-effect estimation confirms that a $1.00 increase in CEO pay at outside directors’ primary companies results in an approximate increase of $0.22 in CEO pay at the given company. From a policy perspective, this added agency problem — caused by the BOD and not by management — is noted as difficult to control; although a firm may establish board independence, the inherent concurrent employment of directors on a board continues to exist.
Misallocation and Manufacturing TFP in Korea / Jiyoon Oh
This paper analyzes the effects of allocative efficiency on productivity in the manufacturing sector of Korea following Hsieh and Klenow (2009). The results of this research indicate that the overall allocative efficiency declined from 1990 to 2012. Using the method of Oberfield (2013), which allows inter-industry resource movement as well as intra-industry reallocation, we confirm that intensified misallocation generally results from intra-industry allocative inefficiency. The potential loss from instances of worsening misallocation is estimated to be approximately 0.6% points for each year, which is considerable in terms of the overall TFP. In terms of the firm size distribution, initially large establishments are more likely to expand if distortions are removed in most countries. One notable feature in Korea is that this pattern is pronounced. This implies that subsidies to unproductive small-sized establishments are heavily implemented.
Household Over-indebtedness and Financial Vulnerability in Korea: Evidence from Credit Bureau Data / Young Il Kim, Hyoung Chan Kim, and Joo Hee Yoo
Financial soundness in the household sector matters for financial stability and for the real economy. The level of household debt in Korea raises concern about the financial soundness of the household sector due to its size, growth rate and quality. Against this backdrop, we assess the financial vulnerability of borrowers based on an analysis of credit bureau (CB) data, in which the actual credit activities of most individuals are recorded at a high frequency in Korea. We construct over-indebtedness indicators from the CB data and then assess the predictability of forthcoming defaults. Based on the over-indebtedness indicators, we show how borrowers are distributed in terms of over-indebtedness and how the over-indebted differ from average borrowers in terms of their characteristics. Furthermore, we show how the aggregate credit risk in the household sector would change under macroeconomic distress by analyzing how each borrower’s credit quality would be affected by adverse shocks. The findings of this paper may contribute to assessing household debt vulnerability and to enhancing regulatory and supervisory practices for financial stability.
The Effects of Financial Support Policies on Corporate Decisions by SMEs / Changwoo Nam
This paper investigates the effectiveness of public credit guarantee programs and interest-support programs for SMEs (small and medium enterprises). First, assuming that there is an imperfect information structure in the SME loan market, we analyze how SME support financial programs affect the corporate decisions made by SMEs with regard to default or loan sizes. In addition, this paper theoretically computes the optimal levels of credit guarantee amounts and the interest-support spread under equilibrium with imperfect information in a competitive loan market. Second, the paper empirically analyzes the continuous policy-treatment effect with the GPS (generalized propensity score) method. In particular, we consider the ratio of guaranteed debt to the total debt as a continuous policy treatment. The empirical results show that marginal effects of a credit guarantee on SMEs’ productivity, profitability, and growth potential decrease with the ratio of guaranteed debt to the total debt. In addition, the average effect of a credit guarantee is maximized when this ratio is at 50% to 60%.