Public-Private Partnership Development in Southeast Asia
This paper provides a landscape of public？private partnership (PPP) infrastructure development in Southeast Asia, where PPP has been promoted as a complement of limited public funds. PPP typically contributes less than 1% of gross domestic product (GDP), while public finance greatly varies from about 2% to 10% of GDP. Among major factors supporting PPP implementation are conducive business environment, good governance, innovative financial schemes, and public sector capacity to manage PPP appropriately. In addition to hard infrastructure development, private participation in social infrastructure is also growing in Southeast Asia.