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  • KDI Journal of Economic Policy, August 2021
  • Date August 31, 2021
  • Language English
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    Effects of Easing LTV·DTI Regulations on the Debt Structure and Credit Risk of Borrowers / Meeroo Kim and Yoon Hae Oh
     I. Introduction
     II. Review of LTV·DTI in the Literature
     III. Data and Empirical Strategy
     IV. Empirical Results
     V. Conclusion
     APPENDIX
     REFERENCES

    Measuring the Degree of Integration into the Global Production Network by the Decomposition of Gross Output and Imports: Korea 1970-2018 / Dongseok Kim
     I. Introduction
     II. Motivation and Literature
     III. Methodology and Data
     IV. Results
     V. Conclusion
     REFERENCES

    An Unsuccessful Reform on the Local Public Contracts Law in Korea / Sunjoo Hwang
     I. Introduction
     II. Institutional Background
     III. Theory Overview and Hypothesis Formulation
     IV. Empirical Analysis: Price Performance
     V. Empirical Analysis: Ex-Post Performance
     VI. Empirical Analysis: Simple Regression
     VII. Conclusion and Policy Implications
     REFERENCES
Effects of Easing LTV·DTI Regulations on the Debt Structure and Credit Risk of Borrowers / Meeroo Kim and Yoon Hae Oh

With CB data in South Korea, this study examines whether the credit risk of borrowers changes when the regulation on bank mortgage supply is relaxed. We analyze the effect of deregulation on LTV and DTI limits in the Seoul-metropolitan area in August 2014 with a difference-in-difference approach. We find that the probability of delinquency is lower in the Seoul metropolitan area after the deregulation than in other urban areas. The effect is noticeable among low-income and low-credit borrowers. We also find that borrowers change their debt structure to reduce the interest costs utilizing their improved access to bank mortgages. The findings suggest the necessity to consider the burden of the high interest costs of unsecured loans for debtors with low incomes and low credit ratings in designing housing finance regulations.

Measuring the Degree of Integration into the Global Production Network by the Decomposition of Gross Output and Imports: Korea 1970-2018 / Dongseok Kim

The import content of exports (ICE) is defined as the amount of foreign input embodied in one unit of export, and it has been used as a measure of the degree of integration into the global production network. In this paper, we suggest an alternative measure based on the decomposition of gross output and imports into the contributions of final demand terms. This measure considers the manner in which a country manages its domestic production base (gross output) and utilizes the foreign sector (imports) simultaneously and can thus be regarded as a more comprehensive measure than ICE. Korea’s input-output tables in 1970-2018 are used in this paper. These tables were rearranged according to the same 26-industry classification so that these measures can be computed with time-series continuity and so that the results can be interpreted clearly. The results obtained in this paper are based on extended time-series data and are expected to be reliable and robust. The suggested indicators were applied to these tables, and, based on the results we conclude that the overall importance of the global economy in Korea’s economic strategy has risen and that the degree of Korea’s integration into the global production network increased over the entire period. This paper also shows that ICE incorrectly measures the movement of the degree of integration into the global production network in some periods.

An Unsuccessful Reform on the Local Public Contracts Law in Korea / Sunjoo Hwang

In Korea, local governments and local agencies had to apply a version of the first price auction augmented by an ex-post screening process when they procure construction contracts. However, this first price auction had been criticized because it was felt that too much price competition could lead to poor ex-post performance in construction. In response, the existing auction method was recently replaced by a version of the average price auction with a similar screening process. This paper empirically examines the effectiveness of this reform and finds that the replacement only increases the fiscal burden of local governmental bodies without making any improvement in the ex-post performance.
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  • Read more

    With CB data in South Korea, this study examines whether the credit risk of borrowers changes when the regulation on bank mortgage supply is relaxed. We analyze the effect of deregulation on LTV and DTI limits in the Seoul-metropolitan area in August 2014 with a difference-in-difference approach. We find that the probability of delinquency is lower in the Seoul metropolitan area after the deregulation than in other urban areas. The effect is noticeable among low-income and low-credit borrowers. We also find that borrowers change their debt structure to reduce the interest costs utilizing their improved access to bank mortgages. The findings suggest the necessity to consider the burden of the high interest costs of unsecured loans for debtors with low incomes and low credit ratings in designing housing finance regulations.

  • Read more

    The import content of exports (ICE) is defined as the amount of foreign input embodied in one unit of export, and it has been used as a measure of the degree of integration into the global production network. In this paper, we suggest an alternative measure based on the decomposition of gross output and imports into the contributions of final demand terms. This measure considers the manner in which a country manages its domestic production base (gross output) and utilizes the foreign sector (imports) simultaneously and can thus be regarded as a more comprehensive measure than ICE. Korea’s input-output tables in 1970-2018 are used in this paper. These tables were rearranged according to the same 26-industry classification so that these measures can be computed with time-series continuity and so that the results can be interpreted clearly. The results obtained in this paper are based on extended time-series data and are expected to be reliable and robust. The suggested indicators were applied to these tables, and, based on the results we conclude that the overall importance of the global economy in Korea’s economic strategy has risen and that the degree of Korea’s integration into the global production network increased over the entire period. This paper also shows that ICE incorrectly measures the movement of the degree of integration into the global production network in some periods.

  • Read more

    In Korea, local governments and local agencies had to apply a version of the first price auction augmented by an ex-post screening process when they procure construction contracts. However, this first price auction had been criticized because it was felt that too much price competition could lead to poor ex-post performance in construction. In response, the existing auction method was recently replaced by a version of the average price auction with a similar screening process. This paper empirically examines the effectiveness of this reform and finds that the replacement only increases the fiscal burden of local governmental bodies without making any improvement in the ex-post performance.

 
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Office of Global Economy
Providing Economic Forecast and Macroeconomic Policy Direction, the Groundwork for a Brighter Future

The Department of Macroeconomics is conducting researches on the macro economy and macroeconomic policy, particularly focusing on suggesting the analysis of macroeconomic trends and current status of the economy at home and abroad, the economic forecast, and the policy direction of the macro economy. The Department is also in charge of establishing, sustaining and maintaining various econometric models, based on which it analyses policy effects and develops a long-term economic forecast.

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