연구보고서 노동시장 신호와 선별에 기반한 입시체제의 분석과 평가 2012.12.31
본 보고서는 우리나라의 학벌문제와 입시체제에 대한 종합적인 연구의 결과물이다. 기존의 관련 연구들이 학벌의 노동시장 효과를 논하거나 입시체제에 따른 사교육 수요의 변화를 분석한 바 있으나, 이를 모두 아우르는 종합적인 연구는 매우 드물었다. 본 연구는 우리나라의 대졸자 노동시장에서 채용을 위한 선별(screening) 과정이 대학입시 단계의 1차적 선별과 대학 졸업 이후 입사 단계의 2차적 선별로 구성되어 있다고 보고, 이러한 노동시장의 이중 선별구조와 구직과정에서의 신호(signaling) 기제를 중심으로 입시체제와 노동시장 간의 관련성을 분석하고 있다.
노동시장에서 통용되는 구직자의 신호는 크게 전문지식, 품성, 일반소양과 같은 개인의 내재적 가치와 출신대학이나 자격증 취득 여부 등의 집합적 평판(collective reputation)으로 구분된다. 각 기업은 지원자가 속한 집단의 집합적 평판을 심사과정에 적극 활용함으로써, 채용과정의 효율성을 개선하고자 노력하게 된다. 특히 출신대학에 대한 평판, 곧 ‘학벌’이 채용과정에서 유용한 선별도구로서 기능하게 되는 것이다. 한편, 이로 인해 입사 지원자에게 있어서는 학벌에 따른 노동시장 내 차별이 공공연하게 일어날 수 있다. 이는 각 개인에게 있어서는 부당한 일이지만, 채용 당사자인 기업에 있어서는 비대칭적인 정보 구조하에서의 합리적 의사결정과정에 해당한다.
우리나라에 만연한 학벌 문제는 대학입시체제와 연결되어 있다. 대학입시가 노동시장에서의 1차적 선별기능을 강하게 수행할수록, 학벌은 개인이 소지한 내재적 가치 및 타고난 재능에 대한 효과적인 대리변수로서 작동하게 된다. 입시의 강한 변별력이 당장은 보다 공정하고 합리적인 것 같지만, 장기적으로는 학벌의 영향력을 강화시킴으로써 입시경쟁의 과열이라는 부작용을 낳는다. 더불어, 우리나라의 경우, 입시를 통한 노동력 자원의 수직적 분류가 대학 간의 견고한 서열질서를 창출하고 있다. 이로 인해, 학생과 학부모의 교육투자 역시 1차적 선별을 준비하는 중⋅고등학교 단계에 집중된 반면, 막상 노동시장 진입을 앞두고 각자의 전문성을 적극적으로 배양해야 할 대학단계에서의 교육은 등한시되고 있다.
덧붙여 견고한 대학 간 서열질서는 대학 간 경쟁구도를 악화시키는 중대 요인 중 하나이다. 각 대학 입학자원의 질적 수준이 상당 부분 입시를 통해 결정되고 이에 따라 대학 간 서열이 형성되고 유지된다면, 대학이 입학한 학생들을 대상으로 질 높은 교육을 경쟁적으로 제공할 인센티브는 그만큼 떨어지게 된다. 따라서 지나친 서열화는 ‘졸업생 평판’에 대한 대학 간 경쟁구도를 훼손하고 고등교육 전반의 질적 발전을 저해하는 요인으로 작동하게 된다.
또한 이로 인한 사교육경쟁으로 인한 과중한 교육비 부담은 이미 저출산의 주요 요인으로 지목되고 있으며, 가계의 노후준비를 가로막는 요인 중 하나로 밝혀졌다. 교육적으로도 과도한 입시 사교육은 청소년들에게 장기적 안목에서의 자기계발과 진로탐색의 기회를 제공하지 못하고, 선행학습의 확대에 따른 공교육의 파행을 초래해 왔다.
본 보고서는 이상의 논의를 분석하는 데 있어 다양한 접근방식을 시도하고 있다. 우선 문헌조사를 통하여, 기존의 연구들을 정리하고 현상에 대한 이해의 폭을 넓힌다. 이론모형을 연구함으로써, 문제에 대한 체계적이고 조직적인 이해를 도모한다. 또한 계량적 실증연구를 수행함으로써, 우리나라 노동시장 내의 차별현상을 짚어보고, 이론모형이 함축하고 있는 갖가지 실증적 함의를 검증해 본다. 그리고 정책적 분석을 통하여 학벌문제와 연관되어 제시되고 있는 다양한 정책 제안들을 평가하고 이들의 예상 효과와 실현 가능성을 포함한 장⋅단점을 정리함으로써, 향후 구체적인 정책대안 마련을 위한 초석을 제공한다.
덧붙여, 본 보고서에는 유용한 부록들을 함께 수록하고 있다. <부록 1>은 세계 주요 국가들의 입시체제를 종합적으로 요약⋅정리하고 있다. 우리나라와 유사한 대학체제를 운영하고 있는 영미권 국가들의 사례를 우선 정리하였으며, 이어서 다수의 OECD 국가들을 대표하는 대륙권 국가들의 사례를 요약하였다. <부록 2> 역시 우리나라 입시제도의 변천과정에 관한 매우 유용한 참고 자료로서, 해방 이후 우리나라 입시제도의 주요한 특성들을 각 시대별로 구분하여 제시하고 핵심적인 사항들과 함께 제도의 변천과정 및 변천사유까지 짚어보았다.
This study is the product of comprehensive research on Korea’s academic elitism and college entering system. Many preceding studies already discussed the effect of academic elitism on the labor market or analyzed the change in private education demand influenced by the college entering system, but few have conducted comprehensive research embracing all these aspects together. This study assumes that Korea’s labor market for college graduates is comprised of two stages of recruitment screening procedures; primary screening through college entrance and secondary screening through employment after graduation, and then analyzes the relevance between the college entering system and labor market with a focus on the dual screening structure of the labor market and the signaling mechanism of the job seeking process.
Signals of job seekers commonly used in the labor market are largely categorized into individuals’ intrinsic values, such as expertise, personality and general knowledge, and collective reputation which covers the school of graduation and acquired certificates or qualifications. The productivity of an individual is determined by intrinsic values, but in the process of company recruitment, it is never easy to accurately discern those values without error. So, each company makes full use of the collective reputation of groups to which applicants belong, particularly the reputation of the college they graduated, or educational background, so as to improve the efficiency of the recruitment process. This is how the educational background works as a useful tool for screening in the process of hiring. Meanwhile, due to such mechanism, applicants may be often exposed to discrimination in the labor market, since applicants of equal intrinsic values would not be equally hired depending on the reputation of the college they graduated. This may sound unfair for the individual applicant, but can be seen as a reasonable decision- making process for a company with asymmetric information.
The elitism which has long been prevalent in Korean society is linked to the college entering system. As the system exerts stronger power as a primary screener, the educational background will be given much stronger influence as a proxy variable to individuals’ intrinsic value and gifted talents. Such a strong differentiating role played by the college entrance system may seem more fair and reasonable in the short-sighted term, but from a long-term perspective it could further strengthen the influence of educational background and even lead to adverse effects, such as overheated competition for entrance examinations. If those of equal capability are given significantly different treatment according to the reputation of the college they graduated, aggressive competition among applicants to enter high-ranked colleges can be seen as very reasonable investment for their future. A number of various policy measures have been explored to put a curb on private education, but obtained little results mainly due to the fact that such conditions of dual screening structure were overlooked.
Moreover, in Korea, as human resources are categorized vertically through college entrance, it has contributed to creating rankings in a rigid order. As a result, students and parents tend to focus their education investment on secondary education ― middle and high schools ― which is considered as a preparation stage for the primary screening ― college entrance. Then, comparatively less attention has been paid to college education at which students are supposed to work actively to foster their specialty and capacity in preparing for entering the labor market. Under the condition where the labor market evaluation of applicants is almost completed according to the rank of their respective college, it is inevitable that applicants will be far less motivated to develop themselves through college education. For instance, the self-study hours (excluding the hours for private tutoring) of Korean high school freshmen recorded 10.28 hours per week, whereas college freshmen spent only 5.40 hours a week (See Chapter 5). On the other hand, approximately 20% of those applying for Korea’s College Scholastic Aptitude Test (CSAT) are retaking the test, implying that the infinite competition at the secondary education stage to enter a high-ranked college continues every year.
Furthermore, the solid ranking order of colleges is one of the biggest factors that aggravate a competitive landscape among colleges. When the quality level of students entering college is determined largely by the college entering system and the rank of college is set and sustained accordingly, it is likely that colleges will have less incentives to competitively provide their new students with high-quality education, since even with the provision of expensive and quality education, the relative evaluation of their graduates would not be changed by large in the labor market. In this regard, it can be said that an excessive hierarchy of colleges will act to destroy inter-college competition and undermine qualitative development of advanced education overall.
This excessive hierarchy of colleges and the overheated competition for college entrance that it generates have not always functioned negatively in Korea. In the past period of industrialization, Korea was in desperate need of the massive number of properly educated human resources with a certain level of intellectual understanding, and the supply of such a workforce was possible thanks to this competitive entrance examination. Though the learning provided at school was focused on mainly three subjects, Korean, English and math, in preparing for the college entrance examination, this was indeed the engine that boosted such high enthusiasm for education out of severely poor conditions of public education at the time. However, it is strongly doubtful that the current system with its priority on college entrance will be suitable for keeping up with the present trend toward a knowledge information society. As pointed out above, the education system focusing on college entrance has resulted in frequent cases of overlooking the most imperative part of advanced education, fostering expertise. The education focusing on college entrance is no longer fit for the world today where fostering creative experts in various areas is of utmost importance.
Also, another problem that must be pointed out is private education caused by the hierarchy of colleges and elitism. The huge burden of education expense brought by private education competition has already been regarded as a major factor behind the low birthrate and an obstacle against households preparing for retirement. Also, in the aspect of education, excessive private education offers the youth with no opportunities of self-development or exploration of career options with a long-term perspective, can even harm mental health in ways such as depression, and has also crippled public education with more students seeking prior learning to boost their high school GPAs. The competitive college entrance system may have been successful in creating higher enthusiasm for education among students and parents, but it is highly questionable whether it is worth tolerating all the troubles and side effects mentioned above.
Various approaches are used to analyze the above discussions in this study. Starting with reviewing literature, it outlines preceding studies and broadens the understanding of pending developments. Then, studying theoretical models, it pursues systemic and organized understanding of problems and through that it attempts to explore policy implications. In addition, by implementing a quantitative empirical study, it investigates discriminative developments in the labor market of Korea and then attempts to verify diverse empirical implications embedded in theoretical models. Furthermore, through policy analysis, it evaluates several policy suggestions presented in relation to elitism and outlines their merits and demerits, including their projected impact and feasibility, thereby laying the groundwork for developing more concrete policy alternatives. This study consists of eight chapters, including the introduction in Chapter 1, which addresses general aspects of the issues to be discussed by describing the public awareness of elitism issues based on the outcomes of polls on education. Adding to that, it also introduces the approaches and methods that this study uses regarding the interaction between the college entrance system and labor market.
Chapter 2 outlines the findings of preceding studies on the relation between educational background and labor market and at the same time reviews several analyses on the Korean society’s chronically overheated private education and its causes. Then, it introduces existing theoretical models on the college entrance system and highlights the distinctive differences of this study.
Chapter 3 deals with the core aspect of this study with the suggestion of theoretical models on educational background and college entrance system. Following the introduction of the labor market analysis method based on signaling and screening, it closely reviews the link between the college entrance system and the effect of educational background. It also analyzes the change in the demand for private education for college entrance according to the assessment functionality of the system based on its own theoretical model. Furthermore, it extends the scope of analysis to cover the implication of the competitive college entrance system embedded in the multi- layered groups of colleges, in other words the hierarchy of colleges, and also to analyze its relation with college students’ motivation for self-development.
Chapter 4 empirically analyzes whether the effect of educational background actually exists or not from the two perspectives of discrimination and satisfaction. Colleges in Korea are ranked into five categories of high, upper-intermediate, intermediate, other four-year and two-year colleges, and the effects of each educational background are analyzed in-depth based on the Korean Labor & Income Panel Study (7th) on experience of discrimination and satisfaction level. It first examines whether discriminative practices exist in employment, wage, promotion and advancement, and general social life, and then reviews whether the satisfaction with overall life and job turns out differently according to different educational backgrounds.
Chapter 5 includes the analysis of empirical implications on the theoretical model, and it verifies the projection of the preceding theoretical model according to which students with more gifted talents are more likely to make active investment in private education for college entrance. For this analysis, Statistics Korea’s survey on private education is used and the result confirms that in Korea, the investment in private education is not a remedial study, but more of a ‘wasting’ investment solely for competitive college entrance. It also examines whether students who entered a lower- ranked college actually experience the weakening of motivation or whether students are less willing to study after entering college, based on the data collected by Korean Education Longitudinal Study.
Chapter 6 reviews key policy implications from theoretical models. It first describes how weakening the assessment functionality of the college entrance system creates the effects of curbing the demand for private education and also introduces similar effects of the grading of the college entrance system. Then, based on a theoretical model, it analyzes the difference of the competition system among colleges according to the degree of primary screening, and at the same time it examines the problem of private education for college entrance with a focus on the issue of secondary screening which is linked to the assessment function for company recruitment. Lastly, it reviews pending issues related to employment, such as the dual structure of the labor market and non-regular workers and their relation with private education problems.
Chapter 7 carries the analysis and assessment of various policy alternatives that could be raised over general areas including the screening procedure for college entrance, college system, the quality of higher education and labor market. Several policy measures to reform the CSAT and school grading system are evaluated, followed by a series of assessments on measure for a unified inter-college entrance procedure and for leveling colleges from the aspect of easing the rigid college rankings. Then, it examines measures for strengthening college education, such as the establishment of a college evaluation system and the substantial disclosure of college information, along with the evaluation of policy measures for strengthening the secondary screening of the recruitment process. Lastly, it discusses on how to relieve discriminative practices in the labor market and the problems resulting from its dual structure.
Chapter 8 concludes and summarizes the findings of the above analyses and presents a comprehensive direction of policy responses needed to tackle private education problems and to resolve the elitism in society.
Additionally, this study attaches several useful appendixes;
summarizes and outlines college entrance systems of leading countries around the world. Given the similarities of college systems, cases of Anglo-American nations are listed first, followed by those of continental nations representing several OECD members. Cases of former communist countries are introduced additionally, though their college entrance systems are quite different from the rest; and carries very useful references on the history of Korea’s college entrance system, including key characteristics of each system by period, the changes in the system and the reasons for those changes.
제1장 서 론
제1절 대학 서열구조와 학벌효과
제2절 입시체제와 노동시장 간 상호작용
제1절 학벌과 노동시장 관련 연구
제2절 사교육 원인 관련 연구
제3절 입시체제에 관한 이론 연구
제3장 학벌과 입시체제에 관한 이론모형
제1절 과열 입시에 대한 경제학적 이해
제2절 노동시장의 신호와 선별
제3절 입시의 변별력과 입시사교육 및 입시학습 수요
제4절 대학군의 다층화와 입시경쟁 수요 및 자기계발 동인
제4장 노동시장 차별경험 및 만족도 분석
제1절 변수의 구성 및 설명
제2절 학벌에 따른 노동시장 차별경험 분석
제3절 학벌에 따른 만족도 차이 분석
제4절 수능백분위를 이용한 취업 차별경험 분석
제5장 이론모형의 실증적 함의 분석
제1절 사교육 투자의 격차
제2절 대학생의 성취의욕 격차
제6장 이론모형의 정책적 함의 분석
제1절 대학입시 변별력 약화의 효과성
제2절 대학입시 등급화의 효과성
제3절 입시의 선별 강도와 대학 간 경쟁체제
제4절 기업의 채용 변별력과 입시경쟁 수요
제5절 상대임금의 변화와 사교육 및 추가 학습 수요
제7장 주요 정책대안의 분석 및 평가
제1절 대입전형의 1차 선별 완화
제2절 대학체제의 구조적 개편
제3절 대학교육 및 취업과정의 2차 선별 강화
제4절 노동시장 차별 및 이중구조 완화
제8장 결 론
[부록 1] 해외 주요국의 입시제도
[부록 2] 우리나라 입시제도의 변천사
[부록 3] 임금, 승진·승급, 사회생활에서의 주관적 차별경험 조사
[부록 4] 우리나라 대학의 학벌 현황
- 주요 관련자료
- 같은 주제자료
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