Policy Study The Impact of Increase in Pension Age on Employment, Income and Consumption December 31, 2022
Due to population aging and a relatively low contribution rate relative to high pension payments, a pension fund in Korea is financially unstable. To improve financial stability, the Korean government passed a law in 1998 that gradually increased the pension age from age 60 to 65 between 2013 and 2033. The purpose of the reform was to prolong the retirement age and delay the pension payment among the elderly. However, as the statutory retirement age has remained at age 60 since 2016, the gap between the statutory retirement age and pension age has widened. This widening gap has brought the need to explore whether and how people have been supplementing their income and consumption in the time of income crevasse.
This paper uses cohort discontinuity regression to estimate the impact of the increase in the pension age on employment, income, and consumption in Korea by using a discontinuous jump in the pension age from 61 to 62 between the 1956 and 1957 cohorts. It finds that an increase in pension age from 61 to 62 leads to a rise in labor income and does not lead to a drop in disposable income and consumption at age 61, despite the decrease in pension amount. However, a heterogenous effect depends on the family characteristics, such as the rate of medical expense out of total consumption expenditure and the education level of the household head. In particular, the labor income of families with high rates of medical expense out of total consumption did not increase despite the decline in pension amount. Along with the decreased business and property income, they experience a drop in disposable income. Moreover, a family with a household head in high school but without a college degree does not increase the labor income. Along with the decline in business and property income, they experience a drop in disposable income and consumption.
These results suggest that the vulnerable group from the increase in pension age policy might be the family who can-not extends labor participation due to health problems or the care-giver burden of the family member with the health problem. Moreover, the vulnerable group from the increase in pension age in Korea might not be the lowest and highest education group but instead those in the middle.
This paper suggests the following policy implication. First, the government needs to provide an income supplement to those who can not extend their employment in the period of income crevasse due to health problems and provide care-giving service to those who can not participate in work due to the care-giving burden between the statutory and pension age. Secondly, the government might want to implement a partial pension system that allows receiving early pension partially, which gives more flexibility in combining work and pension. Thirdly, to reduce the gap between the statutory age and pension age, the government might want to gradually extend the re-employment system while transforming the seniority-based wage system into one that reflects the productivity and task of the person's job. Fourth, the government might want to enhance the job-training program for the elderly by evaluating the program's effectiveness and grasping the need of both the employer and employee's side.
제1장 서 론
제2장 국민연금제도에 대한 개요
제1절 국민연금제도의 개괄
제2절 국민연금 수급개시연령 상향
제3장 50~63세 중고령층의 경제활동 현황
제1절 모 델
제3절 결 과
제4장 국민연금 수급개시연령 상향의 효과
제4절 결 과
제5절 강건성 검사
제6장 결 론
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